Well... turbo charged aircraft. Yes, if the turbocharger bearing seals fail, it is possible for the turbo to suck the engine oil out, causing engine seizure. It is also known on some turbo'd Continentals, where the turbocharger oil scavenge pump is within the starter adapter, that this pump can fail, and a turbocharger, and possibly engine failure results. If the turbocharger impeller shaft is starved for lubrication, the shaft will wear rapidly. The impellers can contact the housing, and break up, sending metal to places it should not be.A turbo is critical for lubrication? On what aircraft might that be?
So a turbo charger should be considered a moving part, and because of its speed and criticality, a complex moving part. It is lubricated from the engine's lubrication system. When it has a failure related to lubrication, it's bad for the engine. Note that prudent piloting of turbocharged aircraft includes a cool down prior to shut down, which in part assures that the impellers can slow, as pressure bearing lubrication will stop when the engine stops turning. You don't want the impellers spinning away at 50,000 RPM for minutes with no pressure lubrication!